Main Article Content
Solving the problem of increasing English language output has been the focus of attention in the last decade. While previous research has extensively analyzed two sources of errors, namely the interlingual and intralingual sources, found in spoken language, this qualitative study investigates the teacher’s language as a source of errors for the learners. It analyzes the common grammatical errors committed by 30 Saudi teachers in their spoken English during one-to-one interviews. Error Analysis (EA), linguistic-based classification and linguistic taxonomy of the data reveal seven types of grammatical errors: the wrong use of tenses, errors in the use of prepositions, wrong use of prepositions, errors in the use of articles, omission of a/an, wrong use of articles, and subject-verb inversion in wh-questions, errors due to lack of concord and agreement, and typical Arabic constructions. The most dominant errors are due to concord or agreement and the least is errors in the use of prepositions. A comparison of the teachers’ errors and learners’ errors reveals a strong correlation, suggesting that the teacher’s language is a possible source of errors for learners.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Abdul Rahman, M. A. (2021). Investigating teachers' views on writing errors made by Saudi university students. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, 113-118. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v10n2p92.
Alahmadi, N. S. (2014). Error Analysis: A case study of Saudi learner’s English. Arab Word English Journal, 5(4), 84-98.
Alahmadi, N. S. (2015). Language transfer errors in speaking among Saudi Arabia students: A comparative study between students in Saudi Arabia and students in the UK [Doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds].
Albalawi, F. H. (2016, January 20). ḍaʿf mukhrajāt taʿallum l-lugha l-ʾinglīziyya: ʾayn yakmun l-khalal? [The low proficiency level of the English language output: Where is the defect?]. al-jazirah, 2(1581). https://www.al-jazirah.com/2016/20160120/ar9.htm.
Albanawi, M. (2018). Errors Analysis of using prepositions: A case study of third intermediate school at Almakarim School. Arab Journal of Sciences & Research Publishing. Majallat l-ʿulūm t-tarbawiyya wo n-nafsiyya [Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences], 3, 328-373. https://doi.org/10.33850/1803-000-003-011.
Al-Ghamari, T. (2004). Integrating writing with other skills. Muscat Message, 25(2), 78- 81.
Alhajailan, D. (2020). A syntactic analysis of Arabic language interference in the written English of Saudi female college students [Doctoral dissertation, University of Roehampton London].
Alhaysony, M. (2012). An analysis of article errors among Saudi female EFL students: A case study. Asian Social Science, 8 (12), 55-66. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v8n12p55.
Ali, J. K. M., Shamsan, M. A., Guduru, R., & Yemmela, N. (2019). Attitudes of Saudi EFL learners towards speaking skills. Arab World English Journal, 10(2), 253-364. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol10no2.27
Almaeena, K. (2014, April 14). Those who can’t do, shouldn’t teach: learning English in Saudi schools. Alarabiya News. https://english.alarabiya.net/views/news/middle-east/2014/04/14/Those-who-can-t-do-shouldn-t-teach-English-in-Saudi-schools.
Al-Nasser, A. S. (2015). Problems of English language acquisition in Saudi Arabia: An exploratory-cum-remedial study. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(8), 1612-1619. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0508.10
Alqahtani, A. (2021). The lack of qualified EFL teachers in Saudi Schools: A qualitative interview study. English Language Teaching, 14(11), 24-29. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v14n11p24.
Alrabai, F. (2016). Factors underlying low achievement of Saudi EFL learners. International Journal of English Linguistics, 6 (3), 21-37. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v6n3p21.
AlRawi, M. (2012). Four grammatical features of Saudi English: charting the influence of Arabic on the syntax of English in Saudi Arabia. English Today, 28, 32–38. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078412000132.
AlRawi, M., AlShurafa, N., Elyas, T., & Alqurashi, A. (2022). A blueprint of Saudi English typology: A substrate effect. Focus on ELT, 4(2), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.14744/felt.2022.4.2.1.
Al-Sahafi, N. A. (2017). An investigation of written errors made by Saudi EFL foundation year students [Doctoral dissertation, University of New South Wales].
Al Shahrani, H. M. (2018). Mother tongue interference: A study of interlingual errors in the written performance of the EFL preparatory year female students at Al-Baha University in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(2), 118-135. https://doi.org/10.26389/AJSRP.H260118.
Al Shumaimeri, Y. A. N. (2003). A study of classroom exposure to oral pedagogic tasks in relation to the motivation and performance of Saudi secondary learners of English in a context of potential curriculum reform [Doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds].
Al-Shurafa, N. (2010). Linguistic variations and use of the 21st century arabicisation of English. Paper presented at the Applied Linguistic Conference. Oxford University.
Althobaiti, N. (2014). Error correction in EFL writing: The case of Saudi Arabia, Taif University. Journal of Modern Education Review, 1038-1053. https://doi.org/10.15341/jmer(2155-7993)/12.04.2014/006.
Al-Tuwaijri, A. (1982). The adequacy of students’ preparation in English as a Foreign Language in the Saudi schools [Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon]. https://www.worldcat.org/title/adequacy-of-students-preparation-in-english-as-a-foreign-language-in-the-saudi-schools/oclc/8879616.
Al-Zahrani, N. A. (2017). Dawr muʿallimī l-lugha fī taḥqīq ruʾyat l-mamlaka 2030: dirāsa ʾstiṭlāʿyya [The role of English teachers in implementing the 2030 vision of the kingdom: a survay]. Arab Journal of Sciences & Research Publishing. Majallat l-ʿulūm t-tarbawiyya wo n-nafsiyya [Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences], 1(1), 111-126. https://platform.almanhal.com/details/article/108126#.
Aoun, J. E., Benmamoun, E., & Choueiri, L. (2010). The Syntax of Arabic. (Cambridge Syntax Guides). Cambridge University Press.
Aslaim, R. M. K. (2008). An analysis of the linguistic errors made by students in Saudi Arabian schools in the acquisition of the auxiliary “Do”: A comparison between boys’ and girls' performances [Master’s thesis, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK]. Retrieved from Arab World English Journal (ID Number: 271). February 2021, 1-92. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/th.271
Asmari, A. A., & Javid, C. Z. (2011). Motivational constructs: A cross sectional study EFL students at Taif University. Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, XIX (2), 73-104.
Bacha, N. N. (2002). Developing learners’ academic writing skills in higher education: A study for educational reform. Language & Education, 16(3), 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780208666826.
Brown, H. D. (1994). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Prentice Hall.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. Prentice Hall.
Darus, S. (2009). Error analysis of the written essays of secondary school students in Malaysia: A case study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(3), 483-495.
Ellis, R. (1995). Modified oral input and the acquisition of word meanings. Applied Linguistic, 16, 409-435. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.4.409
Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001058
Elyas, T., & Al Grigri, W. H. (2014). Obstacles to teaching English in Saudi Arabia public schools: Teachers’ and supervisors’ perceptions. International Journal of Language Teaching, 2(3), 74-89.
Elyas, T., & Picard, M. (2010). Saudi Arabian educational history: Impacts on English language teaching. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 3(2), 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17537981011047961.
Erdoğan, V. (2005). Contribution of Error Analysis to foreign language teaching. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 1(2), 261-270. https://doi.org/10.17860/efd.22900.
Fageeh, A. I. (2011). EFL Learners’ use of blogging for developing writing skills and enhancing attitudes towards English learning: An exploratory study. Journal of Language and Literature, 2(1), 31-48.
Fareh, S. (2010). Challenges of teaching English in the Arab world: Why can’t EFL programs deliver as expected? Procedia Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2, 3600-3604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.559.
Fassi Fehri, A. (1993). Issues in the structure of Arabic clauses and words. (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 29.) Kluwer Academic Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1986-5
Graffi, G. (2002). The asterisk form historical to descriptive and theoretical linguistics: An historical note. Historiographia Linguistica, XXIX(3), 329-340. https://doi.org/10.1075/hl.29.3.04gra.
Hasyim, S. (2002). Error Analysis in the teaching of English. K@ta, 4(1), 42-50. https://doi.org/10.9744/kata.4.1.62-74.
Heffernan, N. (2006). An integrated approach to teaching academic writing. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 8(3), Special Conference Proceedings Volume: Task-based Learning in the Asian Context, 249-258.
Heydari, P., & Bagheri, M. S. (2012). Error Analysis: Sources of L2 Learners' Errors. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 2(8), 1583-1589. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.2.8.1583-1589.
Hinkel, E. (2004). Teaching academic ESL writing: Practical techniques in vocabulary and grammar. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410609427
IvyPanda. (2020, April 6). Subject-Verb agreement errors in Saudi EFL students writing. https://ivypanda.com/essays/subject-verb-agreement-errors-in-saudi-efl-students-writing/
Jabeen, A., & Kazemian, B. (2015). The role of Error Analysis in teaching and learning of second and foreign language. Education and Linguistics Research, 1(2), 52-61. https://doi.org/10.5296/elr.v1i2.8189.
Javid, C. Z. (2010). Addressing the causes that hinder effective English language teaching in Saudi universities: A case study. Bani-Swaif University Journal, 80, 479-513.
Kachru, B. B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk & H. G. Widowson (eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures (11-36). Cambridge University Press.
Kambal, M. (1980). An analysis of Khartoum University students’ composition errors with implications for remedial English in the context of arabicization [Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, Texas]. https://www.worldcat.org/title/analysis-of-khartoum-university-students-composition-errors-with-implications-for-remedial-english-in-the-context-of-arabicization/oclc/7362532.
Keshavarz, M. H. (1994). Contrastive analysis and error analysis. Rahnama Publications.
Keshavarz, M. H. (2003). Contrastive analysis and error analysis. Rahnama Publications.
Keshavarz, M. H. (2006). Error Analysis: A Practical Course for English Students and Teachers. SAMT.
Keshavarz, M. H. (2012). Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis. Rahnama Publications.
Kim, B. (2015). The English fever in South Korea: Focusing on the problem of early English education. Journal of Education & Social Policy, 2(2), 117-124.
Khan, I. (2011). Learning difficulties in English: Diagnosis and pedagogy in Saudi Arabia. Educational Research, 2(7), 1248-1257.
Kharma, N., & Hajjaj, A. (1997). Errors in English among Arabic speakers. Librairie du Liban.
Kushner, E. (2003). English as global language: Problems, dangers, opportunities. Diogenes, 50(2), 17-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0392192103050002002.
Littlewood, W. (1984). Foreign and second language learning: Language-acquisition Research and its Implications for the Classroom. Cambridge University Press.
Mahboob, A., & Elyas, T. (2014). English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World Englishes, 33(1), 128−142. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12073.
Moss, P. (2010). English as a problem language. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 11(4): 432-434. https://doi.org/10.2304%2Fciec.2010.11.4.432.
Rabab’ah, G. (2003). Communication problems facing Arab learners of English: A personal perspective. TEFL Web Journal, 2(1), 15-30.
Radford, A. (2009). An Introduction to English sentence structure (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511800924.
Rahman, M. M., & Alhaisoni, E. (2013). Teaching English in Saudi Arabia: Prospects and challenges. Academic Research International, 4(1), 112-118.
Rajab, H., & Al-Sadi, A. (2015). An empirical study of reading habits and interests of Saudi University EFL learners. International Journal of Linguistics, 7(2), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v7i2.7034.
Richards, J. C. (1971). Error Analysis and Second Language Strategies. Language Science, 17, 12-22.
Richards, J. C. (1974). A Non-Contrastive Approach to Error Analysis. In J. Richards (ed.), Error analysis: Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition (172-188). Longman.
Richards, J. C. (1984). Language curriculum development. RELC Journal, 15(1), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F003368828401500101.
Sani, M. (2018). Women’s representation in STEM related education and careers: A case study of female university students in Saudi Arabia [Doctoral dissertation, Staffordshire University]. http://eprints.staffs.ac.uk/5825/1/SaniM_Thesis.pdf.
Sari, R. A. (2018). Students’ grammatical Error Analysis in speaking. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran, 5(2), 127-137. https://doi.org/10.19109/ejpp.v5i2.2102.
Sayuri. (2016). English speaking problems of EFL learners of Mulawarman University. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 1(1), 47-61. https://doi.org/10.21462/ijefll.v1i1.4.
Shekhzadeh, E., & Gheichi, M. (2011). An account of sources of errors in language learners’ interlanguage. International Conference on Languages, Literature and Linguistics IPEDR, 26, 159-162.
Siddiqui, S. (2014). Language, gender, and power: The politics of representation and hegemony in South Asia. Oxford University Press.
Suleiman, S. (1983). Teaching English to Arab students at the university level. In E. Dahiyat & M. Ibrahim (eds.), Papers from the First Conference on the Problems of Teaching English Language and Literature at Arab Universities. University of Jordan.
Tahaineh, Y. S. (2010). Arab EFL university students’ errors in the use of prepositions. MJAL, 2(1), 76-112.
Ur, P. (1996). A Course in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Yarmohammadi, L. (1995). Fifteen articles in contrastive linguistics and the structure of Persian. Rahnama Publication.
Ziahosseiny, S. M. (1999). A Contrastive Analysis of Persian and English and Error Analysis. Nashr-e Vira.
Zoghoul, M. (1987). Restructuring the English department in the third world universities: alternative approach for the teaching of English literature. IRAL, XXV/(3), 221-236.