Critical pedagogy in ELT: A scoping review on the studies conducted in Türkiye (2015-2022)

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Ayşe Kızıldağ


Critical Pedagogy (CP) which was introduced by Paulo Freire in 1968 has started to become visible in the context of Turkish ELT, recently. Emergence of CP in this academic field has also accelerated the crucial discussions regarding various ELT components across Türkiye. In this paper, the focus is on CP with the motivation of exploring how it is exploited in numerous Turkish ELT settings and the gap in the relevant field of research. Designed as a scoping review, the research specifically outlines the studies conducted between January 2015 and May 2022. Analyses of a total of 34 publications comprising of theses/dissertations, books/book chapters and peer-reviewed articles display that CP has been used in four research strands (i)beliefs and perspectives about CP, (ii) critique of ELT/Teacher education curriculum, (iii) course content, methodology and material analysis, and (iv) course design. As for the gap, derived from recommendation and implications of the studies, four main suggestions including CP integration into ELT curricula, opening CP-based new courses in teacher education programs, re-designing ELT materials considering CP and the use of CP-based methodologies. Last but not least, studies do not mention what does not work well with the CP-use in context. Also, very few theoretical but no policy papers are found, which might be interpreted that CP as a theory is still not quite in the agenda of the relevant authorities.


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Kızıldağ, A. (2023). Critical pedagogy in ELT: A scoping review on the studies conducted in Türkiye (2015-2022). Focus on ELT Journal, 5(1), 19–38.


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