The The Impact of Teacher E-feedback on Students’ Writing: A Waste of Time or a Road to Success?

Main Article Content

Gökçe Erkan


Academic writing is one of the writing skills that has been taught traditionally via face-to-face physical classroom settings. However, with the new advances in educational technologies, online teaching and learning have entered the realms of educational institutions and they are not nowadays considered a foreign aspect. Especially in the last two years of great home-confinements due to the Covid-19 pandemic, teaching and learning in the online world have turned into an inescapable solution. The implementation of online teaching and learning has brought the teachers to a new avenue of teaching writing especially in the aspect of giving feedback to students’ writing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of electronic feedback (e-feedback) provided by instructors on their students’ writing in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) class. The Learning Management System (LMS) was used by the students to submit their writings, and the instructors provided online feedback using the system. The results mainly show that the students benefited from receiving different forms of feedback using the system and the instructors found freedom to provide as much feedback as provided for different purposes. The results of this study indicate that e-feedback practices should be implemented more in language classes and teachers must receive training to improve their knowledge and skills in the practice to be able to use different feedback tools and resources to achieve different ends on their students.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Erkan, G. (2022). The The Impact of Teacher E-feedback on Students’ Writing: A Waste of Time or a Road to Success?. Focus on ELT Journal, 4(1), 46–59.


Ab Hamid, H., & Romly, R. (2020). Teachers’ perception on giving feedback to students’ online writing assignment during movement control order (MCO). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Science, Technology, Engineering and Industrial Revolution (ICSTEIR 2020), 536, 461-463.

AbuSa’aleek, A. O., & Shariq, M. (2021). Innovative practices in instructor e-feedback: A case study of e-feedback given in three linguistic courses during the COVID 19 pandemic. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges, (1), 183-198.

AbuSeileek, A., & Abualsha'r, A. (2014). Using peer computer-mediated corrective feedback to support EFL learners' writing. Language Learning & Technology, 18(1), 76-95.

Ai, H. (2017). Providing graduated corrective feedback in an intelligent computer-assisted language learning environment. ReCALL, 29(3), 313-334.

Alexeeva, N. (2012, March). The effectiveness of audio feedback in online environments. [Paper presentation]. IATEFL 2012 Glasgow Conference, Glasgow.

Alharbi, M. A. (2019). Exploring the potential of Google Docs in facilitating innovative teaching and learning practices in an EFL writing course. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, (14)3, 1–16.

Aljaafreh, A., & Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development. The Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 465-483.

Arslan, R. S. (2013). Integrating feedback into prospective English language teachers' writing process via blogs and portfolios. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 13(1), 131- 150.

Atieya, M. (2012, March). Feedback: Read it or hear it? [Paper presentation]. IATEFL 2012 Glasgow Conference, Glasgow.

Basabrin, A. (2019). Exploring EFL instructors’ and students’ perceptions of written corrective feedback on Blackboard platform: A case study. Arab World English Journal, Special Issue 1: Application of Global ELT Practices in Saudi Arabia, 179-192.

Bitchener, J., & Ferris, D. R. (2012). Written corrective feedback in second language acquisition and writing. Routledge.

Carless, D., Salter, D., Yang, M., & Lam, J. (2011). Developing sustainable feedback practices. Studies in Higher Education, 36(4), 395–407.

Cavanaugh, A. J., & Song, L. (2014). Audio feedback versus written feedback: Instructors' and students' perspectives. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 122-138.

Chang, C., Kelly, J. C., Satar, H. M., & Strobl, C. (2017). Electronic feedback on second language writing: A retrospective and prospective essay on multimodality. Writing & Pedagogy, 9(3), 05– 428.

Cohen, A., & Cavalcanti, M. (1990). Feedback on written compositions: Teacher and student verbal reports. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 155–177). Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches. SAGE Publications Inc.

Demirbilek, M. (2015). Social media and peer feedback: What do students really think about using Wiki and Facebook as platforms for peer feedback? Active Learning in Higher Education, 16(3), 211- 224.

Dippold, D. (2009). Peer feedback through blogs: Student and tutor perceptions in an advanced German class. ReCALL, 21(1), 18-36.

Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2017). Writing with 21st century social tools in the L2 classroom: New literacies, genres, and writing practices. Journal of Second Language Writing, 36, 52–60.

Ene, E., & Upton, T. A. (2014). Learner uptake of teacher electronic feedback in ESL composition. System, 46, 80–95.

Enginarlar, H. (1993). Student response to teacher feedback in EFL writing. System, 21(2), 193-204.

Fathman, A., & Whalley, E. (1990). Teacher response to student writing: Focus on form versus content. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 178-190). Cambridge University Press.

Ferris, D. (1995). Student reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 33-53.

Ferris, D. (1997). The influence of teacher commentary on student revision. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 315-339.

Ferris, D. R. (2002). Treatment of error in second language student writing. University of Michigan Press.

Gagné, R. M. (1985).The conditions of learning and theory of instruction. 4th edition. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Gagné, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Guasch, T., Espasa, A., & Martinez-Melo, M. (2019). The art of questioning in online learning environments: the potentialities of feedback in writing. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, (44)1, 111–123.

Guénette, D. (2007). Is feedback pedagogically correct? Research design issues in studies of feedback on writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(1), 40-53.

Hamp-Lyons, L. (2001). Fourth generation writing assessment. In T. Silva, & P. K. Matsuda (Eds.), On Second Language Writing (pp. 117-128). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Henderson, M., & Phillips, M. (2015). Video-based feedback on student assessment: Scarily personal. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(1), 51-66.

Henderson, M., Ryan, T., & Phillips, M. (2019). The challenges of feedback in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 44(8), 1237-1252.

Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (2006). Feedback on second language students’ writing. Language Teaching, 39(2), 83–101.

Hedgcock, J., & Lefkowitz, N. (1994). Feedback on feedback: Assessing learner receptivity to teacher response in L2 composing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3, 141–163.

Lalende, J. F. (1982). Reducing composition errors: An experiment. Modern Language Journal, 66, 140-149.

Lee, I. (1997). ESL learners’ performance in error correction in writing: Some implications for college-level teaching. System, 25(4), 465-477.

Lee, I. (2008). Student reactions to teacher feedback in two Hong Kong secondary classrooms. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17(3), 144-164.

Leki, I. (1991). The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college-level writing classes. Foreign Language Annals, 24(3), 203-218.

Long, S. S. (1992, August 9-13). Using the Process-model for Writing Options for Responding to Student Drafts. [Paper presentation]. American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 352 826).

Lunt, T., & Curran, J. (2010). Are you listening please? The advantages of electronic audio feedback compared to written feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(7), 759–769.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Sage Publications.

Neumann, K. L., & Kopcha, T. J. (2019). Using Google Docs for peer-then-teacher review on middle school students’ writing. Computers and Composition, 54, 1-16.

Saeed, M. A., & Al Qunayeer, H. S. (2020). Exploring teacher interactive e-feedback on students’ writing through Google Docs: factors promoting interactivity and potential for learning. The Language Learning Journal, 1-18.

Susanti, A., & Tarmuji, A. (2016). Techniques of optimizing WhatsApp as an instructional tool for teaching EFL writing in Indonesian senior high schools. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 4(10), 26-31. 3134.0410005

Şeker, M., & Dinçer, A. (2014). An insight to students’ perceptions on teacher feedback in second language writing classes. English Language Teaching, 7(2), 73-83.

Vanlı, G. (2012). Student and instructor perceptions on feedback to student writing [Ph.D.- Doctoral Program]. Middle East Technical University.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.

Yakut, A. D., & Aydın, S. (2015). An experimental study on the effects of the use of blogs on EFL reading comprehension. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 1-16.

Zacharias, N. T. (2007). Teacher and student attitudes toward teacher feedback. RECL Journal, 38(1), 38-52.

Zamel, V. (1985). Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 79–101.